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Honeymoon Crash Makes News Again

In 1932, newlyweds Millicent and Hugh Fenwick embarked on a cross-country honeymoon in a biplane flown by Hugh. They planned to fly from New Jersey to San Francisco and then on to Alaska, but they never made it past Patco Airport in Pennsylvania. Richard McDonough, a local reporter in Pennsylvania who researches local history, came across Millicent Fenwick’s honeymoon crash when he was writing a series about Patco Airport which has long since closed. He contacted me when he was writing the story and shared this link to his article:  https://morethanthecurve.com/the-freedom-valley-chronicles-patco-airport-part-four/    which can also be found below. If you are interested in learning more about Fenwick’s life you can read Millicent Fenwick: Her Way, which is celebrating its 15th anniversary since it was published in March 2003. Time flies (no pun intended)!

The Freedom Valley Chronicles: Patco Airport – Part Four

Patco Airport was the scene of several crashes of airplanes through the years.  In some of these crashes, people were severely injured and a few people died.  Travel by aviation was not always as safe as it is today.

One of the airplane crashes – a crash that resulted in no injuries, thankfully – involved a woman who would later help lead efforts to change America for the better.

Millicent Hammond Fenwick was a newlywed.  It was June 14, 1932.  She and her husband, Hugh Fenwick, were on an “aero honeymoon”.  They planned to fly their airplane from New Jersey to San Francisco and then on to Alaska.

They stopped at Patco Airport on the cross-country trip.  According to a news article in The Philadelphia Inquirer on June 16, 1932, the couple was visiting Mr. Mark Hopkins, a member of their bridal party earlier that month.

When they took off to leave Plymouth Township, things went downhill.  Or, should I say “upside down.”  The airplane tipped over as Mr. Fenwick attempted take-off.

The Wilkes-Barre Record reported in a news article on June 15, 1932, that the plane “ground looped” as it was taking off from the airport.  “The ship had scarcely left the ground when its nose cropped causing it to turn over completely.”

The new bride and her husband survived the crash.  According to the news article in The Philadelphia Inquirer on June 16, 1932, both Mr. and Mrs. Fenwick were shaken after the incident.  Neither was injured.

The plane could not fly.  Their aero honeymoon was over.

According to Millicent Fenwick: Her Way by Ms. Amy Schapiro, through the assistance of a friend, the couple ended up spending their honeymoon in Bermuda.

The couple went on to live full lives.

For Mrs. Fenwick, what a full life it was.

Born into wealth, she suffered a number of tragedies through the years.  Her mother and father, Ogden Hammond and Mary Stevens Hammond, were on the Lusitania on May 7, 1915.  On that date, the German Empire sunk the British ship by torpedo.  A total of 1,198 people were murdered through this act of war.

Among those that died in the sinking of the Lusitania was the mother of Mrs. Fenwick.  According to a news article on May 20, 1982, in the Bernardsville News, the mother of Mrs. Fenwick was one of 114 Americans that perished through this attack.

Her father survived and later became the United States Ambassador to Spain.

Miss Millicent Hammond was a five-year-old girl when her mother died.

Beyond the airplane crash at Patco Airport, Mrs. Fenwick was involved in two additional airplane crashes, according to her grandson, Mr. Sam Reckford.  “In one situation, she survived the crash itself uninjured,” explained Mr. Reckford.  “She was hanging by some type of harness and when a rescuer released her, she fell and broke a bone.”

Her marriage to Mr. Fenwick did not last long.  The couple separated, according to the House of Representatives biography of Mrs. Fenwick, six years after getting married.  They divorced in 1945.  After the separation, she worked to support their two children as a single parent.

Mrs. Fenwick did not let any of these events stop her from serving her local community in Bernardsville, a borough in Somerset County, New Jersey.  She served as a member of the Borough Council and the local School Board.

She later was elected as a member of the New Jersey General Assembly.

In 1974, she was elected to serve the 5th District of New Jersey in the House of Representatives.

A statue of Millicent Fenwick greets people in Bernardsville, New Jersey. The statue was dedicated in October of 1995.

From the website of Mr. Bob Zorechak, REALTOR:

“An American fashion editor, politician and diplomat and a lifelong resident of Bernardsville, New Jersey. Millicent Fenwick was a larger than life four-term Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New Jersey serving during the Reagan years. She entered politics late in life and was renowned for her energy and colorful enthusiasm. She was regarded as a moderate and progressive within her party and was outspoken in favor of civil rights and the women’s movement.”

On May 6, 2018, the State of New Jersey will publicly honor Millicent Hammond Fenwick for her service to the people of the state and to the nation.  On that date, she will be formally inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.

She is being honored for public service as a politician.

Today, you may not hear the term “public service” associated with the word “politician”.

For Mrs. Fenwick, political office was the means through which she sought to provide service to the public.

“My grandmother loved helping people,” explained Mr. Reckford.  “She saw government as the means to provide justice to all people.”

“She was very much a Republican in that she was fiscally conservative and believed each individual and the private sector should be given the opportunity to move forward,” stated Mr. Reckford.  “She believed in a level playing field that allowed everyone opportunity.”

What started her life in politics?

Hitler.  Adolf Hitler and his Nazi ideology.

“She became political during the years prior to the United States entering World War II,” stated Mr. Reckford.  “She detested Hitler and the Nazis as well as everything they stood for.”

“She saw that the Nazis had taken a great country – Germany – and changed its laws to provide justice for all into laws that created injustice for certain people,” Mr. Reckford continued.

Mrs. Fenwick was quoted in a news article in The Home News serving Central New Jersey on January 15, 1982:  “Hitler first attracted my attention to politics.  I was really horrified at what government could do.”

“My grandmother stood up against anti-Semitism – hatred of Jews – that was common at the time,” explained Mr. Reckford.  “She spoke against the America First Committee.”

The America First Committee was an anti-war movement that advocated for the United States to remain neutral between Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and their Axis allies versus the United Kingdom, France. Poland, the Netherlands, and other nations attacked by the Axis Powers.

Many public officials as well as ordinary folk supported the America First Committee.

Millicent Hammond Fenwick did not.

She publicly spoke out against the America First Committee.

Not everyone agreed with Mrs. Fenwick.

After participating in an anti-Nazi rally in the City of New York, she was attacked and beaten by two thugs according to a news article in The Courier-News of Bridgewater, New Jersey, dated September 17, 1992.  The assault on Mrs. Fenwick took place in the Yorkville section of Manhattan in the summer of 1941.

Think about it:  A 31 year-old woman assaulted in the City of New York because she stood for the civil rights of people.

The attack did not stop Mrs. Fenwick.

“It likely made her more determined than ever to seek justice for people,” stated Mr. Reckford, “She truly believed that the business of government is justice.”

On many occasions, Mrs. Fenwick made her position clear.  America should stand up for justice for all people.  Jews.  African-Americans.  All people.

She joined the National Conference of Christians and Jews.  In 1946, she became a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

“In New Jersey and on Capitol Hill, Millicent Fenwick brought a grace to public service that earned her moniker as the ‘Conscience of Congress’ by none other than Walter Cronkite,” shared Governor Phil Murphy of New Jersey.

Even beyond the shores of our country, Mrs. Fenwick sought to help use the power of government to bring justice to all.

She helped lead efforts in the United States Congress to establish a national commission to help the peoples of Europe as they sought human rights.  As they sought freedom from communism.

First proposed by Mrs. Fenwick in 1975, what became known as the “Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe” was created through law in 1976.  This independent agency of the Federal government – also known as the “United States Helsinki Commission” – “promotes human rights, military security, and economic cooperation in 57 countries in Europe, Eurasia, and North America,” according to its Mission Statement.

An example of Mrs. Fenwick in action can be seen in the transcript of a hearing by the Commission on the assassination attempt on the life of Pope John Paul II on May 13, 1981.  You can view this transcript of the hearing held on September 23, 1982, by clicking this link.

The Commission still functions today.

Not all of the policies advocated by Mrs. Fenwick as an elected official became law.

She was not universally supported nor did her views always carry the day.  Politics can be tough.  In her last campaign for office – to be a United States Senator from the State of New Jersey – Mrs. Fenwick lost the election.

One person mentioned that in her contacts with Mrs. Fenwick, she seemed to always be looking forward.  Mr. Reckford agreed with that assessment.  “She rarely focused on negative things.”

“I think most others treated her with respect – even if they disagreed with her – because she was very polite and respectful to most everyone,” explained Mr. Reckford.

While she made herself available to the news media through her public life and answered most every question posed by reporters, she did not appreciate some of the wording used to describe her.

Mrs. Fenwick did not like that many reporters would focus on her pipe smoking.  The Courier-News in a news article on September 20, 1992, reprinted a quote from Mrs. Fenwick from 1987:  “I was so hurt when I got to Congress.  All the media would say was ‘pipe-smoking grandmother.’  And I would say, ‘For God’s sake, hardworking grandmother, same number of syllables.’  But I couldn’t persuade them.”

She had taken up pipe smoking when her doctor told her to give up cigarettes because they were bad for her health.  She did not like being photographed with the pipe.  “She said she didn’t want to be a bad example to young people,” stated Mr. Reckford.

Mrs. Fenwick was raised in the Episcopalian faith and believed in God, according to Mr. Reckford.  “She didn’t discuss her faith much.  It was very personal to her,” he stated.

Her grandson explained that Mrs. Fenwick invoked a particular Biblical passage on a regular basis.

Micah 6:8.

One translation of a portion of Micah VI:8 is as follows:

“What does the Lord require of thee,
but to do justly, and to love mercy,
and to walk humbly with thy God?”

Her family was important to Mrs. Fenwick.  But there were occasions where service to people seemed to take precedence.

“As grandkids, we could see that she cared so much for the people she represented that we would sometimes joke – but not really joke – that we wanted to be constituents rather than grandchildren,” explained Mr. Reckford.

She loved politics. She loved government service. Public service.

Mrs. Fenwick died in 1992 at the age of 82 years.

Few would have realized on that Spring day in 1932 that the woman who walked away from a plane crash at Patco Airport in Plymouth Township would have lived such a full life serving the people.

Millicent Hammond Fenwick will be recognized for her public service as she enters the New Jersey Hall of Fame on May 6, 2018.

The statue of Millicent Fenwick with the trees in Fall colors in Bernardsville, New Jersey.

From the website of The Bernards Inn:

“Guests may be interested in visiting the life-size statue of Millicent Fenwick, located just across the street from the Inn at the train station. Her arms are open and welcoming, and it is as if she is gazing upon The Bernards Inn and the magnificent ballroom that bears her name.  The Bernards Inn proudly commemorates a legendary woman whose lifelong commitment to activism on behalf of consumers, minorities, and women’s rights helped to change the world.”

In Part Five, we’ll detail further aspects of Patco Airport.

The first photograph of the Millicent Hammond Fenwick statue is courtesy of Mr. Bob Zorechak, REALTOR.

The second photo of Millicent Hammond Fenwick is courtesy of the Library of Congress, 1975.

The second photograph of the Millicent Hammond Fenwick statue is courtesy of The Bernards Inn.

Do you have questions about local history?  A street name?  A building?

Your questions may be used in a future news article.

Contact Richard McDonough at freedomvalleychronicles@gmail.com.

© 2018 Richard McDonough

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Protecting the Constitution

4th-of-july-flagYesterday the New York Daily News ran an op-ed by Harlan Levy entitled “A playbook for state AGs to defeat Trump.” Levy opens with this: “Now more than ever, state attorney generals are the last line of defense against the excesses of the President in Washington. This is a welcome development — but the expectations are high and the challenges many.”

He talks about how Republican state AG’s did the same thing during the Obama Administration that Democratic state AG’s are doing now, but regardless of party their efforts need to be based on facts and not politics. My favorite line in the article is this; “In the heyday of the Justice Department, Robert F. Kennedy and Nicholas Katzenbach stood for the federal Constitution and federal law. Now it will be state AGs.”

It’s nice to see Katzenbach’s tenure at the Justice Department remembered, particularly as we celebrate Independence Day. He loved this country and the Constitution that guides this nation. Katzenbach’s favorite class at Princeton University was about the constitution and taught by constitutional scholar and author Edward Corwin. Corwin’s book, The Constitution and What it Means Today,  first published in 1920 and followed by several updates and editions, was what Katzenbach referred to as “the best single book on the U.S. Constitution. …  beautifully written for laymen.”

As we celebrate the founding of this nation and the Declaration of Independence, I’m thinking (and, yes, still writing) about Nicholas Katzenbach.

Happy Birthday, Millicent

millicent-fenwickI cannot let today end without remembering Millicent Fenwick who was born on February 25, 1910 and passed away in 1992, yet she is still in the news. Earlier this week, in a letter to the editor published in the Madison Eagle, Judith Campbell wrote an open letter to her Congressman, Rodney Frelinghuysen (R-NJ). In it she wrote:

“I have been a lifelong Democrat but always voted for the person, not necessarily the party. That included voting for (Republican) Millicent Fenwick. After Millicent, I remember the years I voted for your esteemed father, Peter Frelinghuysen, who also held this Congressional seat. They were diligent representatives of their constituents, reflecting the values of their voters and adding their ideas to legislation for the betterment of our towns and the country as a whole. I was never concerned about voting for them. You see, my values matched theirs in nearly every instance, and where we differed I was sure that they would negotiate legislation in a way to match the majority of their district. … Patriots such as your father and Millicent would be working hard to save our democracy. Where are you, Congressman Frelinghuysen? Will you help save the values of freedom and liberty that were the foundation of our country, or will you turn a blind eye to fascism in order to curry favor or, worst yet, wield power?”
http://www.newjerseyhills.com/madison_eagle/opinion/letters_to_the_editor/letter-country-needs-the-real-frelinghuysen-back-again/article_98ba0546-bfba-5791-b800-68cf088f3658.html

For those of you interested in learning more about Millicent Fenwick, next weekend the Long Hill Library (917 Valley Road, Gillette, NJ) will be offering a program entitled “Secret Agents of Change: Famous Women in Morris County History” at noon on Saturday, March 4, 2017 to celebrate Women’s History Month. Women who will be featured include Geraldine Dodge, Helen Fenske, and Millicent Fenwick.

Ivana and Hillary

unnamedFor many people who live and work inside the beltway the day after the election was a day of mourning and shock. To distract myself, after work I headed to the Library of Congress where I am fortunate to have a research office. It’s on the top floor of the Adams Building and provides a bird’s eye view of Capitol Hill. There is a church and steeple in the foreground and RFK Stadium in the distance.

As I settled in, I pulled a bound volume of Vanity Fair off my bookshelf. It was from 1992. The article I needed was in the April issue, but the May issue caught my eye. Plastered on the cover was Ivana Trump and a blaring headline “Ivana Be a Star! Ms. Trump’s Literary Debut.” And then in the lower right hand corner was a red banner with yet another headline. This one was about Hillary Clinton—“Will she get to the White House with Bill or without him?” Nearly a quarter century later, and after two failed presidential bids, we finally know the answer. No, Hillary Clinton will not get to the White House on her own. But who could have guessed in 1992 that in 2016 these two women would be connected by a presidential election – the ex-husband of Ivana would be running against Hillary Clinton for the highest office in the land. I kept reading.

These two profiles about two very different women were literally back-to-back. I started reading the Ivana article and was transported to her jet-setting life style, boyfriend at the time, Riccardo Mazzucchelli, who gave her a ten-karat-yellow-diamond ring from Tiffany, and later became her husband for nearly two years. The magazine cover talked about her debut novel, but all the article said about the book was that it sounded eerily similar to the author; it was about a Czechoslovakian born skier married to an American Tycoon, runs a hotel and goes through a long, drawn-out divorce (p. 130). The rest of the article was a profile of Ivana, her early life in Czechoslovakia, her past loves before Donald (and after), and her jet-setting life.

There were two things I found of particular interest; the first was this quote: “The most important thing in Ivana’s life is publicity,” says a New York social figure. “She’s exactly like Donald in that way. They live for publicity. It’s a drug for them” (p. 178). Donald Trump’s comfort in the spotlight and his adeptness at managing it to his advantage were seen throughout his presidential campaign. Trump was so effective at garnering media attention that his campaign did not need to spend the millions upon millions that presidential candidates typically spent on television advertising.

The other thing I found interesting was Ivana talking about her children and how they lived with her. Throughout the campaign, Trump was credited for raising three great children. Even Hillary gave him credit for that much, yet no one ever mentioned Ivana.

During the interview, writer Bob Colacello asked Ivana about accusations that she traveled too much and didn’t spend enough time with her three children. “’That’s the only thing that really upsets me terribly,’ she answered. ‘I spend all the time with them. The children are living with me … so I think I’m a terrific mother. I’m very proud of that.’ My mother is always around and my two nannies which are around—not that they could replace me, by no means. (p. 182).

Her three children are now grown and have been center-stage this political season with Ivanka shining above all and trying to ease the gaffes her father makes. At the time the article was published she was just ten and described as “tall and pretty and blonde and quick with the sarcasm.” (P. 190). When asked what Ivanka wanted to do when she grew up, she “smiled brightly, she answered, ‘The same as Mom.’

img_3086From the glitzy world of Ivana Trump I was transported to the politically savvy world of Hillary Clinton during Bill’s first run for the presidency. This article was entitled “What Hillary Wants: How many touch choices has Hillary Clinton had to make along the road to the White House?” by Gail Sheehy. That headline reverberates true today despite being more than two decades old.

Sheehy writes “The most controversial figure of the election year so far has been a woman, Hillary Clinton, and she isn’t running for office. Or is she? Whether she loves the boy in Bill Clinton as much as the man or whether she is simply unwilling to forfeit her sixteen years’ investment in their political partnership, Hillary is determined to seize the national stage.” (p. 140).

The article goes on to describe how she headlined a luncheon fundraiser in Los Angeles and she left the audience wanting more. As “Hillary dazzled the audience … she said ‘We need to be against brain-dead politics wherever we find it!’ she thundered, looking fierce in a fire engine red suit. ‘We need to forge a new consensus about [our] new political direction … that doesn’t jerk us to the right, jerk us to the left, prey on our emotions, engender paranoia and insecurity … but instead moves us forward together.” (P. 142). I can hear her saying the same thing today. Well, maybe she’s more polished and would use a synonym for ‘jerk.’ But what that quote also demonstrates is Hillary’s consistent message and focus over the years.

When the Vanity Fair article was written, Hillary’s rejection of baking cookies was national news as was Gennifer Flowers. Yet despite those crises, Hillary triumphed and continued to impress those around her. Many talked about her running for president, and here we are. She finally did. How devastating this loss must be for her. The one thing this article drove home for me was that her sights have been on the presidency for much longer than I realized.

“’She wants to win as bad as he does.’ Is she tougher than he is? ‘I think so,’ laughs Carolyn Huber [long-time aide and confidante]. ‘She’s more clear about what she wants and the way she wants it done. I don’t think there’s ever been a time when Hillary set her mind to something she wanted to happen that it hasn’t happened.’” [P. 145]. It seems that time has come.

Who would have thought a Vanity Fair magazine from nearly 25 years ago would still have so much relevance today. So much for escaping the election.

Bob Colacello. “Ivana Czechs In,” Vanity Fair, May 1992, p. 134-138, p. 178-190.

Gaily Sheehy. “What Hillary Wants: How many touch choices has Hillary Clinton had to make along the road to the White House?,”Vanity Fair, May 1992, p. 140-147, 212-217.

Another Anniversary

Millicent Fenwick CoverToday, September 16, marks the 24th anniversary of the passing of Millicent Fenwick. Earlier this month her nemesis, Phyllis Schlafly, passed away. The two women went head to during a televised national debate about the Equal Rights Amendment  (ERA) in 1976. At the time, Fenwick was a member of the GOP Platform Committee at the 1976 Republican Convention and Schlafly was the Stop ERA national chairwoman. Below is an excerpt from Millicent Fenwick: Her Way capturing the exchange between the pair:

“I think it is sad and a little comic that in a bicentennial year to be wondering about whether we ought to admit that 51%-52% of the Citizens of America are really citizens,” said Fenwick during the Schlafly debate. “When ERA started I thought oh sure, and I didn’t take it too seriously, it seemed so natural. I thought it was an oversight, but now as a result of all the opposition so cleverly orchestrated by my companion here, I am getting quire severe about it. We need the ERA because it is a statement that women are citizens.”

But as Schlafly pointed out, “The Majority of women in your state voted against the ERA … They know women are citizens and do no need ERA which will do all sorts of mischievous things like ban mother-daughter banquets in school and subject women to the draft because ERA requires that we treat men and women equally.”

The ERA Amendment did not pass, in large measure  due to Schlafly’s efforts opposing the measure.

 

 

Happy Birthday, Millicent

56cf67328a0fe.imageA few hours ago, Millicent Fenwick’s hometown newspaper, The Bernardsville News, posted a photo of the Millicent Fenwick statue at the train startion in the heart of town entitled “Millicent Dressed for the Weather.” It was accompanied by this caption:

“We are glad to see someone is watching over our beloved former Congresswoman Millicent Fenwick whose statue graces the sidewalk near the Bernardsville Train Station. The scarf no doubt is just the ticket in this blustery, late winter weather. But the shoe? Beats us.”

IMG_8952What the newspaper probably didn’t realize is that today would have been Millicent Fenwick’s 106th birthday. Clearly someone with a sense of humor remembered the significance of February 25th. Why the shoes? Because Garry Trudeau famously depicted Lacey Davenport in a Doonsebury election year cartoon that read “Davenport: As indispensable as sensible shoes.” On the bottom it said “Paid for by her chums.” This Trudeau original hung proudly in Millicent Fenwick’s bathroom.

Although she passed away in 1992, she is not forgotten. Happy Birthday, Millicent!

 

 

 

Cabin John Ice-Cream Truck War

IMG_6070I had not been to Cabin John Regional Park since I read about a rash of car break-ins in the parking lot. But today we decided to go with a mission in mind. My son needed a hiking stick. His school’s theme for the month of August is camping and this month his take home project is to create and decorate a hiking stick. Of all the local parks, Cabin John, nestled in the woods, seemed to be the perfect place to play and find that perfect hiking stick. Within seconds we found one.

While I held the hiking stick, my son climbed and played. We heard the ice cream truck come and go. My son had never been to an ice cream truck so he does not yet associate that recognizable musical chime with ice cream even though we hear it every time we are at Cabin John Park.

Awhile later we were on the lower half of the playground, close to where the truck stops, when I heard that familiar sound. The children near my son were excited for ice cream. He looked at me quizzically. I took his hand, asked if he wanted ice-cream (yes), and then we rushed to get in line as there was only one family left in line by the time we decided to join.

My son looked at the pictures on the side of the truck and chose the blue shaved ice. As the ice cream driver went to prepare the shaved ice, a man in a maroon shirt seemingly came out of nowhere and whacked the side of the ice cream truck with a long iron rod. He hit it with such force I was taken aback and stepped back as I was worried about my son and just thankful that he wasn’t hit in the process. I’m not even sure if this man saw us or not, but he was only inches away. He started yelling something about having a permit for his ice cream truck and our driver apparently did not. Both men shouted at each other and both men called the police.

IMG_6073By now a crowd had gathered. Parents were curious about the police presence and children stood staring as many of them wanted ice cream, but sweets were no longer being served; just verbal jabs.

My ice-cream driver told me that I was a witness and he wanted me to talk to the police when they arrived and I agreed. It’s hard to say how long it took for the police to arrive, maybe 5-10 minutes, maybe less. But they arrived in force. There were multiple police cars and at least three officers.

They handcuffed the driver of the permitted truck for assault. One officer talked to him and took his statement while another officer took a statement from the other driver. At this point my son was tugging at me and wanted to leave. I didn’t blame him. I didn’t expect to get a serving of police officers the first time he ordered from an ice cream truck. I went up to one of the officers, said I was a witness and that the driver wanted me to give a statement, but my son wanted to leave. He took my statement. I described what happened, gave my driver’s license for identification purposes, and then my son decided he wanted to stay. So we continued to eat the shaved ice and play while parents asked me what happened and if I tweeted it out so they could retweet. I confessed to being somewhat illiterate when it came to social media. This is the best I could do.

At the end of the day, neither driver was arrested. The driver with the permit was allowed to leave and eventually the driver without the permit was also allowed to drive away. The police officer I spoke with said that many of the ice cream trucks don’t have permits. I for one had no idea a simple summer pleasure could become so complicated.

IMG_6074I feel for the driver with the permit, but at the same time do not condone that kind of violent outburst in an environment full of children. He made it very clear that trucks without permits are taking away his business. I’m not sure what the solution to this problem is? More enforcement? No more ice cream trucks? I for one don’t plan on buying ice-cream at Cabin John again anytime soon. As for my son, he apparently wasn’t traumatized because when we left he asked for more ice-cream.